This Type of Non-Dairy Milk is the Healthiest, Study Says

That almond milk latte may be delicious, but a study just published in the Journal of Food Science and Technology suggests that the trendy beverage also has some drawbacks. When researchers compared the nutritional profiles of four popular “alternative” milks, they found that soy milk came out on top—and that almond, rice and coconut “milks” all lacked essential nutrients important for overall health.

Plant-based “milks” are often marketed as wholesome and appropriate substitutes for the real thing. To find out if these claims measured up, scientists at McGill University in Canada studied the nutrition labels of several unsweetened almond, soy and rice milks, plus coconut dairy-free beverages, on grocery-store shelves.

Cow’s milk, the researchers say, is still the most complete and balanced source of protein, fat and carbohydrates. Soy milk, a popular alternative option for more than four decades, was found to be the most comparable to cow’s milk in terms of overall nutrient balance. It’s also the highest in protein of all the alternative milk options studied, with about 7 to 12 grams (and about 95 calories) per 8-ounce serving.

Soy milk also contains phytonutrients known as isoflavones, which have been shown to have cancer-fighting properties. It’s not a perfect substitute, though; some people complain about its “beany flavor,” the authors wrote, and some scientists have expressed concerns about “anti-nutrient” substances naturally found in soy, like phytic acid, which can make it harder for the body to absorb and digest important vitamins and minerals.

lmond milk, on the other hand, is low in calories (about 36 per serving) and rich in monounsaturated fatty acids. Getting more of these healthy fats may be beneficial to weight loss and weight management, the authors wrote, and they have also been shown to reduce LDL—or “bad”—cholesterol. But almond milk is also low in protein and carbohydrates, making it less nutritionally balanced than cow or soy milk.

Meanwhile, dairy-free coconut beverages have no protein. And although it’s low in calories (about 45 per serving), most of that energy comes from saturated fat. On the plus side, the report states, drinking this type of beverage has been associated with increases in HDL—or “good”—cholesterol and reductions in LDL cholesterol.

Sweet-tasting rice milk can serve as an alternative for people with allergies to soybeans and almonds, but it’s high in calories (133 per serving) and relatively low in beneficial nutrients. Research suggests that “consumption of rice milk as an alternative to cow’s milk without proper care can result in malnutrition,” the authors wrote, “especially in the case of infants.”

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